Thursday, May 21, 2020

Satire Of The s Travels By Jonathan Swift - 1368 Words

Satire is a literary device that has been used throughout history to make political arguments by way of ridicule. It has been used in plays, comics, and novels. Shakespeare loved incorporating satire into his comedies. Jonathan Swift urged humanity to care for the hunger of the world by feasting on children. Jane Austen wrote satirically on the ways of the noble class. Time and time again, authors use strong words in powerful satire to indirectly convey influential messages. It is intended to be ironic, but not necessarily funny. Despite its light-hearted presentation, satire can be used to question human nature. In Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift, satire is used to show that man is like an animal in the way that he is naturally filthy and supports an incompetent government, but also has the capacity for reason. Swift satirized the uncleanliness that makes humans like animals through a traveler named Gulliver. The little people on the island of Lilliput treated Gulliver very poorly. He was drugged, dragged through the city, and chained to his post. No one dared to go near him because of his size, yet the Lilliputians arrogantly believed that they could kill him. While chained, Gulliver had no place to discreetly and efficiently relieve himself. He was forced to drop his waste out in the open. â€Å"The best expedient I could think on, was to creep into my house, which I accordingly did; and shutting the gate after me, I went as far as the length of my chain would suffer,Show MoreRelatedSatire in Jonathan Swift ´s Gullivers Travels1944 Words   |  8 Pagesearly eighteenth-century, Irish writer Jonathan Swift produced one of the most printed novels known to date. The novel, Gulliver’s Travels, not only received recognition for being reprinted an immense amount of time, but also for the satire found within the novel. Swift intended his novel to be used as a scapegoat in which he would reveal his opinion on the English society. Swift was able to demonstrate this satire through the four part plot of Gulliver’s Travels. Each part of the novel told the journeyRead MoreLiterary Analysis : Jonathan Swift1425 Words   |  6 PagesComp. II Oct. 27, 2015 Literary analysis The author I decided to write about is Jonathan Swift for he had a keen sense for effective sarcasm. As Jonathan Swift said â€Å"The proper words in the proper places are the true definition of style.† Though he was known in different ways, he was mostly popularized through his gift in writing, particularly his satire, or his use of humor and irony, essays. Through out swift life, there has been plenty of events where I believe shape the way he was, hence hisRead MoreExploring the Ways Jonathan Swift Satirises England of the 1720s818 Words   |  4 PagesExploring the Ways Jonathan Swift Satirises England of the 1720s In this essay, I will be considering some of the ways Jonathan Swift satirises the English society. I will be focusing on the effect of his book Gullivers Travels both when it was written and on a modern day audience. Gullivers Travels was published in 1726. Jonathan Swift caused a huge riot because of the way he wrote the book. Satire is making a mockery of people or a group of people in a sarcasticRead MoreGulliver s Travels By Jonathan Swift1116 Words   |  5 PagesGulliver’s Travels was written by Jonathan Swift in 1721. Jonathan Swift, born in 1667 was an Irish satirist, poet and pamphleteer. He later became Duke of the St Patrick Cathedral in Dublin (Ireland). He was also a minister between 1710 and 1714 (Swift Biography 1). â€Å"Gulliver’s Travels† tells the story of Gulliver as he travels throughout the world and meets different societies. Each trip allows him to encounter some fascinating civilizations. The first trip of Gulliver is Lilliput, where the populationRead MoreJonathan Swift s Literary Canon Of Politically And Comically Prolific Satires996 Words   |  4 PagesThesis Statement: Jonathan Swift’s literary canon of politically and comically-prolific satires, fantasies, and allegories was seasoned with his exposure to the follies of the economic, religious and governing institutions o f the British Empire, and thus, he sought to lampoon and caricature the current events and social, cultural, religious, and political trends that were so omnipotent during his lifetime. Swift’s exposure to the monarchical mentality and rife factional conflicts pervading the politicalRead MoreGulliver ´s Travels by Jonathan Swift: Biographical Summary1982 Words   |  8 PagesGulliver’s Travels – Jonathan Swift – Biographical Summary Jonathan Swift was born on November 30, 1667 in Ireland to English parents, Jonathan and Abigail. His father, Jonathan, died shortly after his birth, leaving his mother to raise him and his sister alone. In Ireland, Swift was dependent on a nanny for three years because his mother moved to England. The young man was educated because of the patronage of his Uncle, Godwin Swift. Godwin sent him to Kilkenny Grammar School at age six, whichRead MoreJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal996 Words   |  4 PagesJonathan Swift, 18th century writer and political activist, published â€Å"A Modest Proposal† in 1729 in the midst of turmoil in his home country of Ireland. Under British rule Irish citizens were left destitute and neglected, giving Swift the inspiration for â€Å"A Modest Proposal†. Jonathan Swift’s use of Aristotle s modes of persuasion and straight-faced satire broke Ireland s silence, calling out affluent members of British society and religious hierarch y alike, creating one of the most influentialRead MoreAnalysis Of Gulliver s Travels 1933 Words   |  8 Pagesof Jonathan Swift’s writings there are many commonalities. One in particular that stands out is the use of satire throughout both â€Å"Gulliver’s Travels†, which tells the story of a series of voyages of Lemuel Gulliver’s published in 1726, and â€Å"A Modest Proposal†, where Swift uses the idea of cannibalism to captivate his audience as well as focus on society’s problems. Throughout Swift’s life, politics and religion had a huge impact on him and more importantly, his writing. Many of the satires thatRead MoreAnalysis Of Jonathan Swift s The Revolutionary War 1583 Words   |  7 PagesHannah Rice Schmidt – 1 Research Paper 23 September 2014 Jonathan Swift The Revolutionary War is one, if not the most memorable time of American history. It is what started the beginning of the land of the free. The colonization and tyranny of England was not just felt in the thirteen colonies that became America but also in places such as Ireland. Authors such as Jonathan Swift not only acted as literary geniuses but as a way for modern day historians to see the effects of colonization and the hardshipsRead MoreA Modest Proposal Essay1095 Words   |  5 PagesIn Jonathan Swift’s satire, â€Å"A Modest Proposal†, Swift writes about the starving people of Ireland in the early 1700’s. He makes a wild and absurd proposal to help remedy the problems of overpopulation and poverty. Swift wants to make a political statement by using the â€Å"children† as satire to grasp the attention of the audience - the English people, the Irish politicians and the rich – and make them aware of the political, moral, and social problems. I n â€Å"A Modest Proposal†, Swift’s arguments are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Theory Of Social Disorganization - 893 Words

In 1942, the theory of social disorganization was developed by two criminology researchers by the name of Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay. Social disorganization theory focuses on a person physical and social environments are what causes their behavioral choices. This means that if a person is placed in a neighborhood where there is a high crime rate, or the neighborhood is not dynamic, this can cause them to participate in such crimes, or make the wrong behavioral choices within the youth. In the rural poor communities with high crime rate, children who are not supervised or are not giving rules, are likely to participate in juvenile crimes. Merton’s anomie theory can best be explained as a strain that is placed on someone when they culturally pressured by society. For example many people desire to achieve the American Dream, which to live a wealthy lifestyle, or have a certain amount of income. When a person cannot achieve those goals, they become mentally strained, which leads to participating in such behaviors so they can achieve the feeling of their goals. In juxtaposition to Mertons anomie theory, Robert Agnew general strain theory identifies that a person who has been through struggles are more likely to experience behavioral problems. Agnew’s general strain theory is based on the general idea that when people are treated badly they may get upset and engage in crime. These behavioral acts may be caused by certain factors that consist of, parental influences orShow MoreRelatedSocial Disorganization Theory 922 Words   |  4 Pages Social disorganization theory is a perspective on crime and deviance that examines the community and how it influences crime. Overtime there have been several school shootings and other crime on college campuses throughout the US. People have been left wondering how such crimes can happen in an educational community. Barton, Jensen, and Kaufman break down the variables that go into a college community such as Greek life, race, and age in their article â€Å"Social Disorganization Theory and The CollegeRead MoreThe Theory of Social Disorganization701 Words   |  3 PagesSocial Disorganization Summary paper Social disorganization refers to the failure of group members to collaborate and accomplish objectives or tackle issues. Social disorganization normally alludes to a group or society described by the absence of social control. This brings about an absence of an effective functioning integration between personal maladjustment, conflicting social attitudes, and conflicting interests among group members (Goode, 2008). Criminologists and social researchers focusRead MoreThe Theory Of Social Disorganization Theory908 Words   |  4 Pages Among the different explanations proposed, there is a predominant theory: the theory of social disorganization. As described by Dr. Rengifo (2009), the social disorganization theory, forwarded by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay (1942), suggests that the variation in crime rates is linked to the weakened social integration of neighbourhoods which is a result of the presence of delinquent subcultures and structural factors on social interactions that lead to the absence of self-regulatory mechanismsRead MoreThe Theory Of Social Disorganization Theory Essay1369 Words   |  6 Pagesneighborhood. Although various theories can be used in order to explain the link between poverty and crime, the one that best fits would be social disorganization theory. Social disorganization theory is a theory, which emphasizes environmental impacts of living in neighborhoods that are high in crime and also stresses that this is the reason that criminal activity increases (Tibbetts Hemmens, 2015). The Chicago school theory is otherwise known as the theory of social disorganization as well. Chicago wasRead MoreThe Theory Of Social Disorganization Theory980 Words   |  4 Pagescomprehensive paragraphs on how social disorganization theory can inform your understanding of behavior and place, and one weakness which would find your understanding somehow lacking, and why. Then write two equally compelling paragraphs on how routine activities theory would foster your understanding, and one weakness which might leave your understanding lacking, and why. Frank Schmalleger explains the theory of social disorganization as one that depicts both social change as well as conflict, andRead MoreThe Social Disorganization Theory Is An Intriguing Theory976 Words   |  4 PagesThe Social Disorganization theory is an intriguing theory that can be seen in our society today. This theory states that â€Å"disorganized communities cause crime because informal social controls break down and criminal cultures emerge† (Cullen 6). The city of Chicago was the predominate focus upon the construction of this theory. The reasoning for this was because Chicago was the fastest growing population in the 19th century, a population starting at 5,000 in 1800 and growing to 2 million in 1900,Read MoreEssay on Social Disorganization Theory2441 Words   |  10 Pagesâ€Å"SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY† Written by Andrew Lien amp; Henry Nunnery J201 Section: 23607 Theoretical Foundations of Criminal Justice Policies Tuesdays, 06:00P-08:40P Instructor: Mark T. Berg, Ph.D. The main assumption of Social Disorganization Theory is the ability to explain why crime committed by lower class communities is more prominent than neighborhoods from communities in better economic areas. This theory is the relationship of the destabilization of urban communities andRead MoreSocial Disorganization Theory And Crime998 Words   |  4 PagesStarz’ â€Å"Power , Social Disorganization Theory and Crime Introduction: In the television show â€Å"Power†, organized crime is the most prevalent form of crime displayed. Organized crime can be defined as a methodically unlawful activity for profit on a city-wide. interstate and worldwide scale. The act of engaging in criminal activity as a structured assembly is called racketeering in the United States. The premise of this project is to research social disorganization theory as it pertains to the televisionRead MoreThe Social Disorganization Theory Of Crime1141 Words   |  5 Pages One of the most important and well-studied criminological theories intended to explain and predict crime rates is social disorganization theory (Sampson 2012). The social disorganization theory of crime was originally articulated by Shaw and McKay (1942) to explain differences in neighborhood crime rates among juvenile delinquents in concentric zones in the Chicago metropolitan area. They found that some areas had consistently high crime rates and juvenile arrests over time despite population changesRead MoreCommunity And Social Disorganization Theory1858 Words   |  8 PagesCommunity and Social Disorganization In the early part of the twentieth century, some social observers criticize that â€Å"while criminal anthropologists Lombroso and Hooton focused their attention on discerning whether criminals had larger foreheads or more tattoos than non criminals, they ignored the larger changes in society that were occurring around then† (Cullen, 97). In other words, these social observers indicate that the traditional criminology, such as the biological theory, is established

Statistics for Business and Economics Question Answers Free Essays

Sidents with a margin of error of 1 minute, what sample size should be used? Assume confidence. sample sample size should be used 151 37. Towers Perrin, a New York human resource consulting firm, conducted a survey of 1100 employees at medium-sized and large companies to determine how dissatisfied employees were with their Jobs (The Wall Street Journal, January 29, 2003). We will write a custom essay sample on Statistics for Business and Economics Question Answers or any similar topic only for you Order Now Representative data are shown in the file JobSatisfaction. A response of Yes indicates the employee strongly disliked the current work experience. What is the point estimate of the proportion of the population of employees who strongly dislike their current work experience? -p=473+1100=0. 43 ? Point estimate is 0. 43 At 95% confidence, what is the margin of error? Z_O. 025 0 Margtn of error 0. 0293 What Is the 95% confidence interval for the proportion of the population of employees who strongly dislike their current work experience? -p? ±O. 0293 0 The 95% confidence Interval is 0. 4007 to 0. 4593 Towers Perrin estimates that It costs employers one-third of an hourly employee’s annual salary to find a successor and as much How to cite Statistics for Business and Economics Question Answers, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Report on Panera Bread’s Options Essay Sample free essay sample

Since its origin. Panera Bread’s focal point has been on the Specialty Bread / Bakery-Cafe class. The company’s end has been to do Panera Bread a nationally dominant trade name name. Toward that terminal. the focal point has been chiefly on enlargement into extra suburban markets. traveling from 66 to 485 coffeehouse in merely 4 old ages. After full scrutiny. I have come to the decision that Panera should concentrate on: Evaluation of Current Objectives and Current Strategy Panera’s current scheme is to increase new unit growing through a combination of owned. franchised. and joint-venture operated shops. Panera besides on a regular basis reviews it menu offerings to fulfill altering client penchants within its mark groups. They besides wish to make new schemes and enterprises. Current Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths: Failings: Analysis of Current Environmental Threats and Opportunities Menaces: Opportunities: Stakeholder Analysis Identifying Current Problems Alternate Schemes Recommendations My recommendation would be for Panera to concentrate its fundss and energy on increasing its bing market portion through offering funding for franchisees and keeping equity in the franchisees. We will write a custom essay sample on Report on Panera Bread’s Options Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This will let Panera corporate to capitalise on potentially moneymaking existent estate minutess. It should besides buy its largest provider bakeshops and necessitate sole usage of those bakeshops by franchisees. Panera should besides cut down its executive direction bed. cut downing executive compensation demands.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962

The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 The Cuban Missile Crisis was a tense 13-day-long (October 16-28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union triggered by America’s discovery of nuclear-capable Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. With Russian long-range nuclear missiles just 90 miles off the shore of Florida, the crisis pushed the limits of atomic diplomacy and is generally considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. Spiced with open and secret communication and strategic miscommunication between the two sides, the Cuban Missile Crisis was unique in the fact that it took place mainly in the White House and the Soviet Kremlin, with little or no foreign policy input from either the U.S. Congress or the legislative arm of the Soviet government, the Supreme Soviet. Events Leading to the Crisis In April 1961, the U.S. government backed a group of Cuban exiles in an armed attempt to overthrow communist Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. The infamous assault, known as the Bay of Pigs invasion, failed miserably, became a foreign policy black eye for President John F. Kennedy, and only widened the growing Cold War diplomatic gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Still smarting from the Bay of Pigs failure, the Kennedy administration in the spring of 1962 planned Operation Mongoose, a complex set of operations orchestrated by the CIA and Department of Defense, again intended to remove Castro from power. While some of the non-military actions of Operation Mongoose were conducted during 1962, the Castro regime remained solidly in place. In July 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, in response to the Bay of Pigs and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles Turkey, secretly agreed with Fidel Castro to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba in order to prevent the United States from attempting future invasions of the island. The Crisis Begins as Soviet Missiles Detected In August of 1962, routine U.S. surveillance flights began showing a build-up of Soviet-made conventional weapons on Cuba, including Soviet IL–28 bombers capable of carrying nuclear bombs. A U.S. patrol plane flies over a Soviet freighter during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Getty Images Staff On September 4, 1962, President Kennedy publicly warned the Cuban and Soviet governments to cease the stockpiling of offensive weapons on Cuba. However, photographs from a U.S. U–2 high-altitude aircraft on October 14 clearly showed sites for the storage and launch of medium- and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) being built in Cuba. These missiles allowed the Soviets to effectively target the majority of the continental United States. On October 15, 1962, the pictures from the U-2 flights were delivered to the White House and within hours the Cuban Missile crisis was underway. The Cuban ‘Blockade’ or ‘Quarantine’ Strategy In the White House, President Kennedy huddled with his closest advisers to plan a response to the Soviet’s actions. Kennedy’s more hawkish advisers – led by the Joint Chiefs of Staff argued for an immediate military response including air strikes to destroy the missiles before they could be armed and made ready for launch, followed by a full-scale military invasion of Cuba. At the other end, some of Kennedy’s advisers favored a purely diplomatic response including strongly-worded warnings to Castro and Khrushchev they hoped would result in the supervised removal of the Soviet missiles and dismantling of the launch sites. Kennedy, however, chose to take a course in the middle. His Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara had suggested a naval blockade of Cuba as a restrained military action. However, in delicate diplomacy, every word matters, and the word â€Å"blockade† was a problem. In international law, a â€Å"blockade† is considered an act of war. So, on October 22, Kennedy ordered the U.S. Navy to establish and enforce a strict naval â€Å"quarantine† of Cuba. The same day, President Kennedy sent a letter to Soviet premier Khrushchev making it clear that further delivery of offensive weapons to Cuba would not be allowed, and that the Soviet missile bases already under construction or completed should be dismantled and all weapons returned to the Soviet Union. Kennedy Informs the American People Early in the evening of October 22, President Kennedy appeared live across all U.S. television networks to inform the nation of the Soviet nuclear threat developing just 90 miles from American shores. In his televised address, Kennedy personally condemned Khrushchev for the â€Å"clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace† and warned that the United States was prepared to retaliate in kind should any Soviet missiles be launched. â€Å"It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union,† stated President Kennedy. Kennedy went on to explain his administration’s plan for dealing with the crisis through the naval quarantine. â€Å"To halt this offensive buildup, a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated,† he said. â€Å"All ships of any kind bound for Cuba, from whatever nation or port, will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back.† Kennedy also stressed that the U.S. quarantine would not prevent food and other humanitarian â€Å"necessities of life† from reaching the Cuban people, â€Å"as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948.† Mere hours before Kennedy’s address, the Joint Chiefs of Staff had placed all U.S. military forces on DEFCON 3 status, under which the Air Force stood ready to launch retaliatory attacks within 15 minutes. Khrushchev’s Response Raises Tensions At 10:52 pm EDT, on October 24, President Kennedy received a telegram from Khrushchev, in which the Soviet Premier stated, â€Å"if you [Kennedy] weigh the present situation with a cool head without giving way to passion, you will understand that the Soviet Union cannot afford not to decline the despotic demands of the USA.† In the same telegram, Khrushchev stated that he had ordered Soviet ships sailing for Cuba to ignore the U.S. naval â€Å"blockade,† which the Kremlin considered to be â€Å"an act of aggression.† During October 24 and 25, despite Khrushchev’s message, some ships bound for Cuba turned back from the U.S. quarantine line. Other ships were stopped and searched by U.S. naval forces but were found not to contain offensive weapons and allowed to sail on for Cuba. However, the situation was actually growing more desperate as U.S. reconnaissance flights over Cuba indicated that work on the Soviet missile sites was continuing, with several nearing completion. US Forces Go to DEFCON 2 In light of the latest U-2 photos, and with no peaceful end to the crisis in sight, the Joint Chiefs of Staff placed U.S. forces at readiness level DEFCON 2; an indication that war involving the Strategic Air Command (SAC) was imminent. During the DEFCON 2 period, about 180 of SAC’s more than 1,400 long-range nuclear bombers remained on airborne alert and some 145 U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles were placed on ready status, some aimed at Cuba, some at Moscow. On the morning of October 26, President Kennedy told his advisers that while he intended to allow the naval quarantine and diplomatic efforts more time to work, he feared that removing the Soviet missiles from Cuba would ultimately require a direct military attack. As America held its collective breath, the risky art of atomic diplomacy faced its greatest challenge. Khrushchev Blinks First On the afternoon of October 26, the Kremlin appeared to soften its stance. ABC News correspondent John Scali informed the White House that a â€Å"Soviet agent† had personally suggested to him that Khrushchev might order the missiles removed from Cuba if President Kennedy personally promised not to invade the island. While the White House was unable to confirm the validity of Scali’s â€Å"back channel† Soviet diplomatic offer, President Kennedy received an eerily similar message from Khrushchev himself on the evening of October 26. In an uncharacteristically long, personal and emotional note, Khrushchev expressed a desire to avoid the horrors of a nuclear holocaust. â€Å"If there is no intention,† he wrote, â€Å"to doom the world to the catastrophe of thermonuclear war, then let us not only relax the forces pulling on the ends of the rope, let us take measures to untie that knot. We are ready for this.† President Kennedy decided not to respond to Khrushchev at the time.   Out of the Frying Pan, but Into the Fire However, the next day, October 27, the White House learned that Khrushchev was not exactly that â€Å"ready† to end the crisis. In a second message to Kennedy, Khrushchev emphatically demanded that any deal to remove Soviet missiles from Cuba had to include the removal of U.S. Jupiter missiles from Turkey. Once again, Kennedy chose not to respond. Later the same day, the crisis deepened when a U.S. U–2 reconnaissance jet was shot down by a surface-to-air (SAM) missile launched from Cuba. The U-2 pilot, U.S. Air Force Major Rudolf Anderson Jr., died in the crash. Khrushchev claimed that the Major Anderson’s plane had been shot down by the â€Å"Cuban military† on orders issued by Fidel Castro’s brother Raul. While President Kennedy had previously stated he would retaliate against Cuban SAM sites if they fired on U.S. planes, he decided not to do so unless there were further incidents. While continuing to search for a diplomatic resolution, Kennedy and his advisors began planning an attack on Cuba to be carried out as soon as possible in order to prevent more nuclear missile sites from becoming operational. As this point, President Kennedy still had not responded to either of Khrushchev’s messages. Just in Time, a Secret Agreement In a risky move, President Kennedy decided to respond to Khrushchev’s first less demanding message and ignore the second one. Kennedy’s response to Khrushchev suggested a plan for the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba to be overseen by the United Nations, in return for assurances that the United States would not invade Cuba. Kennedy, however, made no mention of the U.S. missiles in Turkey. Even as President Kennedy was responding to Khrushchev, his younger brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, was secretly meeting with Soviet Ambassador to the United States, Anatoly Dobrynin. In their October 27 meeting, Attorney General Kennedy told Dobrynin that the United States had been planning to remove its missiles from Turkey and would proceed to do so, but that this move could not be made public in any agreement ending the Cuban missile crisis. Dobrynin related the details of his meeting with Attorney General Kennedy to the Kremlin and on the morning of October 28, 1962, Khrushchev publicly stated that all Soviet missiles would be dismantled and removed from Cuba. While the missile crisis was essentially over, the U.S. naval quarantine continued until November 20, 1962, when the Soviets agreed to remove their IL–28 bombers from Cuba. Interestingly, the U.S. Jupiter missiles were not removed from Turkey until April 1963. The Legacy of the Missile Crisis As the defining and most desperate event of the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis helped to improve the world’s negative opinion of the United States after its failed Bay of Pigs invasion and strengthened President Kennedy’s overall image at home and abroad. In addition, the secretive and dangerously confusing nature of vital communications between the two superpowers as the world teetered on the brink of nuclear war resulted in the installation of the so-called â€Å"Hotline† direct telephone link between the White House and the Kremlin. Today, the â€Å"Hotline† still exists in the form of a secure computer link over which messages between the White House and Moscow are exchanged by email. Finally and most importantly, realizing they had brought the world to the brink of Armageddon, the two superpowers began to consider scenarios for ending the nuclear arms race and began working toward a permanent nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Prove the Complement Rule in Probability

How to Prove the Complement Rule in Probability Several theorems in probability can be deduced from the axioms of probability. These theorems can be applied to calculate probabilities that we may desire to know. One such result is known as the complement rule. This statement allows us to calculate the probability of an event A by knowing the probability of the complement AC. After stating the complement rule, we will see how this result can be proved. The Complement Rule The complement of the event A is denoted by AC. The complement of A is the set of all elements in the universal set, or sample space S, that are not elements of the set A. The complement rule is expressed by the following equation: P(AC) 1 – P(A) Here we see that the probability of an event and the probability of its complement must sum to 1. Proof of the Complement Rule To prove the complement rule, we begin with the axioms of probability. These statements are assumed without proof. We will see that they can be systematically used to prove our statement concerning the probability of the complement of an event. The first axiom of probability is that the probability of any event is a nonnegative real number.The second axiom of probability is that the probability of the entire sample space S is one. Symbolically we write P(S) 1.The third axiom of probability states that If A and B are mutually exclusive ( meaning that they have an empty intersection), then we state the probability of the union of these events as P(A U B ) P(A) P(B). For the complement rule, we will not need to use the first axiom in the list above. To prove our statement we consider the events Aand AC. From set theory, we know that these two sets have empty intersection. This is because an element cannot simultaneously be in both A and not in A. Since there is an empty intersection, these two sets are mutually exclusive. The union of the two events A and AC are also important. These constitute exhaustive events, meaning that the union of these events is all of the sample space S. These facts, combined with the axioms give us the equation 1 P(S) P(A U AC) P(A) P(AC) . The first equality is due to the second probability axiom. The second equality is because the events A and AC are exhaustive. The third equality is because of the third probability axiom. The above equation can be rearranged into the form that we stated above. All that we must do is subtract the probability of A from both sides of the equation. Thus 1 P(A) P(AC) becomes the equation P(AC) 1 – P(A). Of course, we could also express the rule by stating that: P(A) 1 – P(AC). All three of these equations are equivalent ways of saying the same thing. We see from this proof how just two axioms and some set theory go a long way to help us prove new statements concerning probability.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Leadership styles in the public service (public service for example Essay

Leadership styles in the public service (public service for example police, fire service, etc) - Essay Example (SWAITHE, 2001, 26-27). Successful tactical management / leadership turn out to be more important as the pressures for larger implementation and restructuring required of law enforcement organisations, as police leadership entails an innovative approach to these demands. The law enforcement officers normally are under the direction of paramilitary and bureaucratic models of leadership, which models are represented by the extremely centralised and managed theories that police function is quantifiable and controllable. In this respect to deal with growing environmental and technological ambiguities, several agencies transformed to a specialized or post-bureaucratic model of leadership. This style of leadership involves an outstanding methodology to conceptualising organisational public management. Contemporary manners of law enforcement leadership facilitate a decentralisation of commitment, authority, power, and decision-making, together with community concern and assessment. (ROGERS, 2008, 38-39). A better-suggested style of leadership that can possibly help law enforcement agencies as they progress in an environment transformation is Spiritual Leadership Style. This is a fundamental leadership concept for organisational change planned to generate an inherently stimulated, learning organisation. The principle of Spiritual Leadership is to initiate vision and value similarity across the strategic, empowered team and levels of individual and, finally, to promote advanced stages of organisational dedication and efficiency. Spiritual Leadership consists of the values, attitudes, and behaviours that one must assume to inherently motivate oneself and others in order that both have a feeling of spiritual endurance through calling and membership. Furthermore, the Spiritual Leadership paradigm offers an integrating Framework for a police department's transformation struggle, specifically as it associates to growing stages of inherent motivation, dedication, productivity, and employee well-being. Leadership style pertains to the prototype of behaviour a leader applies across the full diversity of leadership circumstances. Evaluating all the variables which influence the efficiency of the work environment and the optional effort prioritized by the group, Leadership Style demonstrates the greatest influence. The extensiveness of a leader's collection of styles establishes his or her efficiency. Leaders descend toward styles that are considered natural to them, and may limit themselves to only those styles that appear naturally. What feels natural is principally determined by the leader's individual proficiencies. In Leadership Style, there is no accurate or erroneous as the most successful style relies on, and differs according to the mission, people, and circumstance to deal with. These styles are comparatively successful depending on the characteristics of the circumstance, such as: 1) experience of the team; 2) employee strengths and weaknesses; 3) intricacy of the mission; 4) time pressures; 5) risk associated with deviation from performance; and resources available (time and people). (THIBAULT ET AL, 2004, 53-54). Whilst managers deal a limitless range of leadership circumstances, research has revealed that there are basically six